Spotlight on Games > War Games > Print and Play > The Republic of Carthage
Contents:
  1. Introduction
  2. Components
  3. Prepare to Play
  4. Sequence of Play
  5. Terminology
  6. Playing the Game
    1. Mortality Phase
    2. Revenue Phase
    3. Trade Phase
    4. Forum Phase
    5. Senate Phase
    6. Exploration
      and Combat Phase
    7. Revolution Phase
  7. Victory Conditions
  8. Optional Assassination
    Rule
  9. Solitaire/Two-player Variant
  10. Player Notes
Appendices:
  1. Combining this game with
    The Republic of Rome
  2. Designer's Notes

The Republic of Carthage
Rules of Play Version 2.3 April 24, 2015
  1. Introduction
    The Republic of Carthage reflects the approximately 350 years in the life of the Carthaginan Republic, divided into the early and late Republics. Players guide the fortunes of the Republic, especially its politics, wars and trade.
    The Republic of Carthage is a fully standalone game inspired by The Republic of Rome, which using the
    Grand Variant can also be played as an expansion to it

  2. Components
    • Four Boards (Wars, Forum, Cards, Chits)
    • 64 Early Republic Cards:
      • 20 Senators
      • 14 Intrigues
      •   9 Wars
      •   7 Events
      •   5 Statesmen
      •   4 Laws
      •   3 Explorations
      •   2 Enemy Leaders
    • 64 Late Republic Cards:
      • 34 Intrigues
      •   7 Wars
      •   6 Events
      •   5 Statesmen
      •   5 Senators
      •   5 Laws
      •   2 Enemy Leaders
    • 18 Table Event Cards
    •   9 Province Cards
    •   5 Office Cards
    •   5 Committee of Five Cards
    • 31 Mortality Chits
    •   6 Faction Leader markers
    •   3 State Treasury counters: 100, 10, 1
    •   3 six-sided dice, two white and one colored
    • Trade Cards, as follows:
      1. 8 Ochre, 7 Hides
      2. 6 Iron, 5 Papyrus
      3. 9 Salt, 8 Timber
      4. 8 Grain, 7 Oil
      5. 7 Cloth, 6 Wine
      6. 6 Bronze, 5 Silver
      7. 5 Spice, 4 Resin
      8. 4 Gems, 3 Dye
      9. 3 Gold, 2 Ivory
    • 28 Army Counters:
      • 2 Carthaginian Legions
      • 2 Balearic Slingers
      • 4 Celtiberians
      • 4 Libyan Light Infantry
      • 4 Numidian Cavalry
      • 2 Elephants
      • 2 Sikels
      • 5 Gallic Swordsmen
      • 3 Campanian Swordsmen
    • 25 Fleet Counters
    • Disaster, Stalemate, Fleet Victory, Manpower Shortage markers
    • Term, Liable, Game Turn, Tax Rate, Prior Suffete, Captured markers
    • Influence/Popularity/Trader markers
    • Talent (T) counters
    Sample Senator

    Explanation of attributes:
    MAGO [2]: Name and ID number
    MIL 3: Military ability (in this case 3).
    ORA 4: Oratorical ability, or Oratory (4).
    EXP 4: Explorational ability (4)
    LOY 09: Loyalty rating (9)
    (image): indicates that this is a Senator
    INF: Influence total (5)
    POP: Popularity total (0)
    TRA: Traders total (0)
    DECK 1: deck to which the card belongs (1 or Early)
    Sample Statesman

    Explanation of attributes:
    HANNIBAL MAGO [2A]: Name and ID number
    MIL 4: Military ability (in this case 4)
    ORA 3: Oratorical ability, or Oratory (3)
    EXP 1: Explorational ability (1)
    Himilco Loyalty: 0: Statesman special ability
    LOY 09: Loyalty rating (9)
    (image): indicates that this is a Statesman
    5th C. BC: when the historical person lived (5th century BC)
    INF: Influence total (4)
    POP: Popularity total (0)
    TRA: Traders total (0)
    DECK 1: deck to which the card belongs (1 or Early)
  3. Prepare to Play
    1. Place the boards face up on the table in any arrangement that does not overlap.
    2. Shuffle the Senators in the Early Republic deck and deal 3 to each player, face up. These form each player's starting faction.
    3. Make a deck of the Early Republic Intrigue, Law and Trade Concession cards. Shuffle and deal 3 to each player, face down. Players may play Trade Concession and eligible Statesman cards at this time; otherwise they must await the Revolution Phase.
    4. Combine all of the remaining Early Republic cards and shuffle well to form the starting deck. Place it on the board.
    5. Each faction receives one trader, the owning player deciding which Senator receives it.
    6. Each player designates one Senator as Faction Leader by placing a Faction Leader marker on his card.
    7. The Senator with the lowest ID number is the Temporary Home Suffete.
      The Senator with the next to lowest ID number becomes Governor of Undeveloped Coastal Spain.
      The Senator with the third lowest ID number after that becomes Governor of Undeveloped Sardinia-Corsica.
      The owning players may decide the length of terms (1-3) remaining for the Governors.
    8. Shuffle the 5 Committee Memberships and randomly deal one to each player to be assigned to a senator in the respective factions. Any Committee Memberships not assigned are placed in the Forum. If there are 6 players, deal a Committee Membership to each faction except for the one receiving the Temporary Home Suffete. Each is assigned a remaining term length as follows:
      • Censor of Morals: 3 turns remaining
      • Harbor Master and Overseer of the Agora: 2 turns remaining
      • State Treasurer and Supervisor of Public Buildings: 1 turn remaining
    9. Place the Conquest of Tunisia War Card in the Inactive section of the Forum.
    10. Set the State Treasury to 100 talents by placing the "000T", "00T" and "0T" markers on the State Treasury tracks.
    11. Set the Tax Rate level to 10% by placing the "TAX RATE" marker on the 10 space of the State Treasury tracks.
    12. Place 2 Carthaginian armies in the Active Forces box.
    13. Place 2 Balearic Slingers, 4 Celtiberians, 3 Campanian Swordsmen and all Fleets off board; these form the starting Force Pool.
    14. Arrange the Trade cards by number and shuffle into nine face down stacks. Remove (randomly) the following cards from what is available in the following stacks:
      • From 1's stack: 1 card
      • From 2's stack: 1 card
      • From 3's stack: 2 cards
      • From 4's stack: 4 cards
      • From 6's stack: 3 cards
      • From 8's stack: 2 cards
      • From 9's stack: 3 cards
    15. Place the Mortality chits into an opaque cup.

  4. Terminology
    DR: indicates a roll of two dice, whose results are added together
    dr: indicates a roll of one die
    Family card: another term for a Senator (and not a Statesman) card, so called because each such card represents multiple individuals in a single family over several generations
    HRAO: The Senator holding the office of Home Suffete is normally the Highest Ranking Available Officer. When this office is vacant or when other officers appear, the HRAO is determined according to the following ranking:
    1. Home Suffete
    2. Marine Suffete
    3. State Treasurer
    4. Censor of Morals
    5. Supervisor of Public Buildings
    6. Harbor Master
    7. Overseer of the Agora
    8. Lowest-numbered Senator in Carthage
    PM: Presiding Magistrate, the Senator running the Senate, often the HRAO, but not always
    Statesman: A Statesman card represents an outstanding member of a Senate family. A Statesman is also a Senator and the term Senator is used to collectively apply to all Senators and Statesmen. Each Statesman ID number is limited by the particular Senator card with the same number. A Statesman card may only be played if one of two conditions apply:
    • The Senator card is not in any faction or on the board.
    • The Senator card is part of the player's faction; in this case place the Statesman to cover the Senator.
    Special rules apply to the following Statesmen:
    • Mago family. Statesmen #2A and #2B may both be in play at the same time. If one is a member of a faction, no other faction may play the other. If both are in play, randomly determine which is affected by Mortality chit draws and which statesman receives the family card should it appear in the Forum. If the holder of the family card dies and the other statesman is in play, the family card moves under the still-living statesman, even if the family card is the faction leader.
    • Barca family. Statesmen #3A and #3B may not be in play at the same time.
    T: talents, the monetary unit of the game
    TDR: indicates a roll of three dice, whose results are added together

  5. Sequence of Play
    1. Mortality Phase
    2. Revenue Phase
    3. Trade Phase
    4. Forum Phase
    5. Senate Phase
    6. Exploration and Combat Phase
    7. Revolution Phase

  6. Playing the Game

    1. Mortality Phase
      The following also describes how to draw Mortality chits at other points in play.
      Draw one Mortality chit from the cup. If its number matches that of any Senator in play, that Senator dies.

      If the chit reads "None", there is no effect.

      If the chit reads "Draw 2", place the chit on the table and draw two more chits. If these numbers match any Senators in play, those Senators die.

      After all drawing is complete, return all drawn chits to the cup.

      Consequences of Death: When a Senator dies, all his Influence, Popularity and Trader markers are returned to the supply. Any office or Trade Concession he held is placed in the Forum. Unless the Senator is a Faction Leader, the card is also placed in the Forum. A Faction Leader stays with the faction and also retains all his Traders.

      If a Statesman dies, the markers are treated as above and the card is removed from play. The underlying Family card is treated as above.

    2. Revenue Phase
      The players perform the following steps in order simultaneously:
      1. Each Faction Leader collects 3 talents, each other Senator in a faction, 1 talent.
        These talents come from the general supply; place them on each Senator's card.
      2. State Treasurer, Supervisor of Public Buildings and Harbor Master receive extra income.
        The income provided by these offices is explained on the corresponding cards.
      3. Each Committee member may roll 1 die for corruption.
        Each member of the Committee of Five may roll 1 die during the Revenue Phase and collect that number of talents from the supply, the corresponding amount being deducted from the State Treasury. As this is an prosecutable offense, place a "Liable" marker on the Senator as a reminder for the
        Senate Phase, when such wrongdoing is liable to prosecution.
      4. State receives 100T.
        Increase the State Treasury by 100T. This and the next 3 items modify the State Treasury track.
      5. Rebel faction pays 2T per rebel army.
        Each rebel army costs the rebel faction. Any armies not maintained return to Senate control.
      6. State pays 2T per fleet or army.
        Each active Senate fleet and army costs the State Treasury.
      7. State pays 20T per Active War, 25T per Lost War.
        Each active war costs the state 20T per turn, each Lost War 25T per turn.
      8. State pays 1T per every 5 trade Trade Fleets/Caravans.
        The State Treasury pays 1T per every 5 Trade Fleets or fraction thereof and 1T per every 5 Caravans or fraction thereof.
      9. Govern Provinces.
        1. For each Governor, the owning player rolls dice to determine the Province's contribution to the State Treasury. Make a single die roll when the "State Income" line indicates "dr", but roll two dice when "DR" is indicated. After rolling, apply any modifier.
          Example: the State Income line for Undeveloped Libya reads "dr - 5". The "dr" means that the player rolls 1 die. In this case, the die shows "1". Subtracting 5 yields -4. Since the number is negative, the player reduces rather than adds to the amount in the State Treasury, in this case by 4.
        2. After resolving the State Income, the player decides whether the Governor will take Personal Income. To do so, roll per the "Personal Income" line. Play talents from any positive result on the Governor's card; negative results are deducted from the State Treasury instead.
        3. Whenever a Governor takes Personal Income, place a "Liable" marker. on his card, to remain until he is tried or the end of the Prosecutions Step the next time he is in Carthage, whichever comes first.
        4. After resolving Personal Income, if the Province is Undeveloped, check to see whether its status improves. Roll 1 die. Add 1 if the Governor did not take Personal Income on this turn. If the result is 6 or more, the Province card is flipped over and henceforth players use the Developed side; in addition, the Senator adds 3 Influence.
        5. Movement of the Term Marker: When a Governor takes office the Term marker is placed on the Province box labeled "TERM". After each Revenue Phase as Governor, the marker is moved a space to the right. When the marker is would move past the last space, instead the Province card is placed in the Forum.
      10. Re-distribute funds.
        Players may redistribute talents among Senators in Carthage freely. Funds with Senators currently serving as Governors or away prosecuting a war or exploration cannot be changed, however. Players may also give talents in Carthage away to other players. This money goes into the receiving player's Faction Treasury, also considered to be in Carthage and thus also eligible for redistribution. All talents on Senator cards are held face up; only talents in the Faction Treasury, which belong to the Faction as a whole, are kept visible, but face down.
      11. Make Contributions.
        Senators may contribute talents to the State Treasury by removing these talents from their cards and adding them to the State Treasury amount. When the amount is large enough, a Senator who contributes in this way earns Influence according to the Contributions table on the board.
      12. Check for Bankruptcy.
        If the State Treasury is unable to make all of its payments, the game ends immediately. See Victory Conditions.

    3. Trade Phase
      For those who know the game, the acquisition and trade of cards is quite similar to that of Civilization.
      Players conduct the steps of this phase in the following order.
      1. Collect trade cards for traders and trade concessions.
        1. Order: Begin with the player holding the Overseer of the Agora office and proceed clockwise. If the office is not currently held, begin instead with the HRAO.
        2. Procedure: Each player draws trade cards from as many stacks as he has traders in play, starting with the "1" stack and continuing up to the number of traders. If he has more than 9 traders, he continues again with the "1" stack. However, if any stack is empty, he does not draw any card to replace it.
          Example: A player has four traders. Normally he would draw one card each from stacks 1, 2, 3 and 4. But stack 3 is empty so he draws only from stacks 1, 2 and 4.
        3. Trade Concessions: Collect extra trade cards for played Trade Concessions as described on the Trade Concession cards.
      2. Trade.
        1. Time Limit: Set a timer to ensure that this step lasts a maximum of 5 minutes.
        2. Determining value: Each Trade card alone is worth the large number printed on the card. When there are multiple instances of the same card, however, the value of the set is determined by squaring the number of cards and multiplying the result by the commodity value. As a convenience, the values of sets are given on the cards themselves.
          Example: A Dye card is worth 8. The second line numbers – "8 · 32 · 72" – indicate that two Dye are worth 32 and three Dye are worth 72.
        3. Trade Offers: Each player offers a trade of at least three cards, quotes their total value and names at least one commodity included. This information must be correct. Any other information verbally revealed in an offer, whether volunteered or sought, need not be correct.
        4. Restrictions: Trade cards in a player's hand can never be shown to other players.
          During this step, only trade cards may be exchanged. Other items such as Intrigue Cards and talents may be promised, but these items may not change hands until the Revolution and the Revenue Phases, respectively.
          Any one trading deal may involve two players only.
      3. Sell Trade cards and pay taxes.
        1. Turn Order: Players conduct this step beginning with the HRAO and proceeding clockwise.
        2. Selling: A player sells by turning in Trade cards to acquire talents. The card values (as explained above) are converted directly into talents.
          Example: The player turns in 3 Dye cards. As a result he collects 72 talents.
        3. Paying Taxes: Each player now pays taxes on the revenue received according to the current tax rate. Fractional amounts are rounded up. These amounts are added to the State Treasury.
          Example, the player turns in 3 Dye and 1 Papyrus, earning 74 talents. As the tax rate is 10%, he pays 74 x .10 = 7.4 which is rounded up to 8 talents. These talents come out of the revenue received and increase the State Treasury.
      4. Overseer of the Agora receives extra income.
        The Senator currently in the position of Overseer of the Agora receives extra income based on the number of Trade cards turned in during the current turn. (See the card text for details.) This amount is not subject to tax.
      5. Warehouse unsold Trade cards.
        Trade cards not turned in may be saved up to the limit of the number of traders belonging to that faction. Any cards beyond this must be discarded and returned to the appropriate stacks. That is, "1" cards are returned to the "1" stack, "2" cards to the "2" stack, etc. This limit is applied at the end of the Trade Phase only.
      6. Re-distribute Trade income.
        Players may distribute their Trade income as they see fit among their Senators and Faction Treasury, but may not re-distribute talents allocated during the Revenue Phase. (Talents in the Faction Treasury may be used to buy votes, pay taxes and for Persuasion defense. They may also be redistributed out of the Faction Treasury during the next Revenue phase.)
      7. Return sold Trade cards to the Trade Destination Mat. All cards that have been sold or discarded are returned to the appropriate trade stacks. Each such stack is immediately re-shuffled.
      8. Check for end of Overseer term.
        If the Overseer of the Agora Term marker has moved off the track, place this card in the Forum.

    4. Forum Phase
      1. Remove Table Events left over from the previous turn.
      2. Beginning with the HRAO, each player has an Initiative, performing all the following steps once before play proceeds with the next player to the left:
        1. Roll 2 dice. A 7 is a Random Event; otherwise, draw a card.
          On a 7 roll 3 dice, consult the Random Events table on the board and apply the instructions on the Table Event card that corresponds to the result. Place this card on the board as a reminder. Should this same event recur on the same turn, rotate it upside down as a reminder.
          Otherwise the player draws a card and acts upon it according to its type:
          • Enemy Leader. If the board contains one or more of this Leader's Wars, these Wars become Active. Place the Leader with these Wars in the Active area. Otherwise, place the Leader in the Leaders area.
          • Event. Keep secret and play at any time so long as not prohibited by the text on the card.
          • Exploration. Place the card in the Inactive Wars area.
          • Family. If the card matches an in-play Statesman, place the card under this Statesman. Otherwise, place in the Forum.
          • Intrigue. Keep secret and play at any time so long as not prohibited by the text on the card.
          • Law. Keep secret and play as permitted at any time during the Senate phase to change the rules of the game. Played Laws remain on the board.
          • Statesman. Keep secret and hold in hand. This can be played or traded only in the Revolution phase.
          • Trade Concession. Keep secret and play to a Senator during the Revolution phase.
          • War. Check whether Active or Inactive and place in the corresponding board area. However, if two or more War names match, e.g. the 1st Sicilian War and the 2nd Sicilian War, both Wars become Active.
            Some Wars specify that upon their appearance certain armies desert. This means that the armies leave the force pool and are not available until Carthage defeats the war.
            When these types of armies have differing statuses, e.g. unrecruited, recruited and veteran, recruited armies desert before unrecruited ones while the decision between recruits and veterans is determined randomly.
        2. Persuade a Senator.
          1. To persuade a Senator in the Forum or belonging to another player to join your faction, first indicate this target Senator, who must be in Carthage (i.e. not governing a province or at a war or expedition) and must not be a Faction Leader (he may be a Statesman).
          2. Then designate the Senator of yours who will perform the Persuasion.
          3. Add together this Senator's Oratory and Influence and subtract the target's Loyalty and the value of any talents on the card. (Loyalty may be zero, however, for some Statesmen, depending on the instructions on the card.) If the target is a member of an opponent's faction, subtract 7 more. The result is called the Persuasion Number.
          4. The persuading player may add talents to the attempt, which increases the Persuasion Number on a one-for-one basis. The talents must come from the persuading Senator and are placed on the target.
          5. Then, beginning with the player left of the persuading player and continuing clockwise around the table, every other player may interfere by spending to also modify the Persuasion Number, either up or down. These talents may only come from Faction Treasuries and again are placed on the target.
          6. When each player has had a chance, the persuading player may either resolve the attempt or add more talents from the Persuading Senator. In the latter case, there is another round during which each player may again interfere.
          7. To resolve the attempt the persuading player rolls 2 dice. If the result is equal to or less than the Persuasion Number, the target joins his faction, along with all his associated cards and markers. If the result is higher than the Persuasion Number, or an 11 or 12, the attempt ends in failure.
        3. Attract a Trader.
          Designate a Senator and roll 2 dice. If the result is 12, the Senator increases his number of Traders. If the result is less than 12, the Senator may spend talents to increase it on a one-for-one basis until it reaches 12. There is no limit on the number of Traders a Senator may accumulate.
        4. Appoint new Faction Leader.
          The player may change his Faction Leader by moving the corresponding marker to a different one of his Senators.
      3. Extra Initiatives.
        If there are fewer than 6 players, auction off Initiatives until there have been 6. This is a clockwise, once-around voice auction of talents, each bid coming from a single Senator, beginning with the HRAO player. A bid of 0 is permissible, but each succeeding bid must exceed the previous one. Players unwilling to bid pass and are out of that particular auction. The Initiative is taken immediately after each auction.
      4. Aging leaders, Returning Senators and Trade Concessions.
        Aging Leaders. For each Leader in the Forum without any matching War, roll a die. On a result of 5-6, remove the Leader from play.
        Returning Senators. For each dead Senator card face down in the Forum, roll a die. On a result of 5-6, turn the card face up. Such cards are now available for Persuasion during the next Forum phase, unless the Senator has been sent out as a Governor.
        Trade Concessions. For each destroyed Trade Concession card face down in the Forum, roll a die. On a result of 5-6, turn the card face up. Such cards are now available for assignment during the Senate phase.
        Tally Votes in Carthage. Each player counts his votes by adding together the Oratory ratings of all his Senators in Carthage. It may be useful for each player to display this amount using the Influence/Loyalty markers.

    5. Senate Phase
      How the Senate works: Except for the Prosecutions phase and when players seize the floor via a Public Outcry card, the HRAO is termed the Presiding Magistrate as he presides over Senate activities. In particular, the PM makes proposals, their types described below. Before and after a proposal a wise PM first permits its discussion and then calls the vote by pointing one-by-one to each player in any order and requesting a vote. Each player either responds "Yes", "No" or "Abstain", which applies to their entire faction. The number of votes cast is equal to the combined Oratory of all the player's Senators.

      Buying votes: A player may buy additional votes on a one-for-one basis by spending talents from Senators and/or the Faction Treasury; purchased votes apply only to the current proposal. When there are more Yes than No and Abstain votes, the proposal passes and its specifications are made real.

      Failed proposals: A rejected proposal may not be repeated on the same turn. When there is a proposal that cannot be allowed to fail, no vote is taken for it passes automatically.
      Example: If every possible pair of candidates for Suffete has been rejected, then the last available pair are elected automatically.

      Stepping down: Should the PM ever make a proposal so unpopular that every other player votes No and the proposal fails, the PM may step down and the next highest available officer becomes the PM. If he does not step down, the PM loses 1 Influence (down to a minimum of 0).

      Conduct the Senate Phase in the following order:
      1. Advance Committee Member terms.
        Each member of the Committee of Five advances the Term marker for their office one space. When the Term marker moves off the end of the track, the office is placed in the Forum.
      2. Elect two Suffetes.
        The PM nominates two candidates for Suffete, as a single proposal. Eligible candidates are faction members present in Carthage and not holding any other office (i.e. Suffete, General, Expedition Commander, Committee Member, Governor). Should the PM's first proposal fail, proposals continue until a pair of Suffetes are elected. Each of the elected Suffetes gain 5 Influence.
      3. Suffetes assign Home and Marine Suffete.
        The Suffetes together decide which will be Home Suffete and which Marine Suffete. If they cannot agree, resolve randomly, e.g. using dice. Indicate which is which using the Suffete cards. The Home Suffete presides over the Senate. The Marine Suffete must be sent to war before the Home Suffete may be.
      4. Fill vacant Committee Memberships.
        Any vacant Committee of Five offices must be filled. The PM proposes candidates from among faction members currently in Carthage not holding other office. Committee Membership is for 3 turns (except at the start of play – see
        Prepare to Play). Each election to the Committee gains 3 Influence for the office holder. Committee Members may accept a new membership in the same turn in which they have previously left office, but Members cannot be compelled to do so, unless there is no other candidate.
      5. Conduct Prosecutions.
        For this phase the Censor of Public Morals becomes the PM. He may perform one major or two minor prosecutions of a Senator in Carthage each turn.
        Minor prosecutions:
        • Eligibility: Most recently out-of-office Suffete, General or Expedition commander, Governor or Committee Member who took personal income
        • Consequences of successful prosecution: Lose 5 Popularity and 5 Influence; Committee Members lose their posts.
        Major prosecutions:
        • Eligibility: Most recently out-of-office Suffete, General or Expedition commander
        • Consequences of successful prosecution: Death
        Procedure:
        1. The Censor names the target of the prosecution, the Accused, and a Senator whose owner consents to be the Prosecutor.
        2. The Censor then calls the vote. The Accused adds his Influence to his faction's vote total. When it is time for the target to vote, his owner may also roll 2 dice against the Popular Appeal Table. He or anyone else may also play a Public Outcry card to cancel the prosecution; it still counts as one of the prosecutions the Censor can perform in he current turn.
        3. In case of a Major Prosecution, a Statesman (but not a Senator) may go into Exile at this time. Exile means that he receives no income, may not vote, talents on his card are frozen and he loses all Influence and Popularity gains. He has no interaction with the game except for Mortality Chit draws. He may be recalled only as a result of a successful Senate proposal to do so.
        4. If the majority of votes are for the Accused, or he is freed via the Popular Appeal Table, he returns the "Liable" marker to the supply and is immune from further such prosecution for this turn.
        5. If the majority of votes are against the Accused, or he is killed via the Popular Appeal Table, the Prosecutor gains half the Influence lost by the Accused.
        6. After this phase control returns to the previous PM.
      6. Fill vacant Governorships.
        Each Province in the Forum must be assigned to a Senator in Carthage, without other office, who becomes the Provincial Governor. As each such proposal passes, the card is placed with the Governor, who is considered to have left Carthage. His votes are no longer available while in the Province. The proposals in this step involve assigning Provinces only.
        Repopulating Carthage: If the number of player-owned Senators in Carthage ever falls below 8, give the top dead Family card in the Forum to the player with the fewest Senators. Any tie is resolved in favor of the player with the least total Influence, or if still tied, randomly. Continue doing so until the number is 8, or the Forum is exhausted, whichever comes first, but also using any live Senators (receiving player's choice) in the Forum once the dead are exhausted.
      7. Conduct other business:
        Following the election of Governors, the PM may make other proposals, including the assignment of any unowned Trade Concessions currently in the Forum.
        • Recruit/Disband Forces.
          Carthage recruits by putting onto the board any armies, fleets, Trade Fleets or Caravans current in the Force Pool. The cost to the State Treasury for each type is given by the Recruiting Table. Carthage disbands by moving any of the above back to the Force Pool. (This has no immediate effect on the State Treasury, but does save maintenance costs.) Armies which desert lose their Veteran status and commander loyalty.
        • Prosecute Wars.
          Sample War

          Explanation of attributes:
          1st Roman War, 264-241 BC: Name and historical dates
          13/5/10@: Land strength, required fleet support, naval strength (13, 5 and 10, resp.)
          D11 S14: Disaster and Standoff numbers (11 and 14, resp.)
          Removes 1 Trade Goods card from stacks 1, 4 and 5. All Campanians desert.: Special effects when War appears.
          War, Active: type of conflict (War or Revolt) and initial status (Active or Inactive)
          Loss: effects of Suing for Peace
          Victory: effects of defeating the War (35T goes to the State treasury)
          DECK 2: deck to which the card belongs (2 or Late)

          Elements of the proposal. A proposal to prosecute a war must name a commander, a list of the exact forces and the war to which they are to be sent.
          Eligible commanders. At the beginning of play the only eligible officers are the two Suffetes.
          Naval Wars. Some wars, e.g. the "1st Roman War" of the example above, have a naval war component. Fighting this type of war, Carthage must first defeat the naval component alone using only fleets and commanders. This is fully resolved as a war including a three-die roll and all the consequences of Victory, Defeat, Stalemate, Standoff or Disaster. But if armies are sent along with the fleets, the land portion of the war can be pursued immediately following resolution of the fleet battle, so long as the following conditions are met:
          • Armies were sent along with the fleets
          • Naval result was Victory
          • Force still has enough fleets to meet the war's fleet support requirement (the second number)
          If not all of these conditions are met, but Victory was achieved, place a "Fleet Victory" on the war and return the force to Carthage.
          Sikels and Gallic Swordsmen. Note that use of the Sikels and Gallic Swordsmen is limited to particular wars. (See the Recruiting Table on the board.)
          PM departure. Should the PM leave Carthage, the Senate phase ends automatically.
          Multiple forces. The Senate may send more than one force to the same War on the same turn. Each has its own commander(s) and each attacks the War separately. Which force arrives first is determined randomly. A force that arrives subsequent to the first one ignores the Standoff/Disaster rule.
          Crisis. Crisis conditions are in effect if at the start of the Senate Phase, Carthage faces three or more active wars or at least one war with strength 20 or more. In a Crisis, the Senate may appoint two commanders to jointly prosecute the same war. Both commanders' military ratings are added together when determining the Combat Table result. Prior to the Separation of Powers Law, at least one of the commanders must be a Suffete. The other commander may be any Senator currently in Carthage, who is thus elected to the position of General, for which he gains 3 Influence.
        • Send Expedition.
          The Senate may fund and authorize expeditions for exploration. Exploration opportunities are in the form of cards which appear from the Deck.
          Sample Exploration

          Explanation of attributes:
          Trans-Sahara, 450 BC: Name and historical date
          50/0: Caravan strength and Trade Fleet strength (50 and 0)
          D13: Disaster number (13)
          Exploration: type of card
          Success: effects of a Success result
          DECK 1: deck to which the card belongs (1 or Early)

          Each Exploration requires a commander – a Senator in Carthage not holding any office, who receives 3 Influence on the Senator.
          Each Exploration also requires a number of either Caravans or Trade Fleets. Caravans and Trade Fleets cost 1T each and are subject to cost increase due to Manpower Shortages or No Recruitment.
          When a Senator is deployed to an Exploration, place the Exploration card with the Senator and indicate the number of Caravans/Fleets using Influence/Popularity/Trader markers.
          Although the Senate may choose to send multiple expeditions to pursue the same opportunity for Exploration, expeditions may never be reinforced or recalled. When an exploration is successfully completed any other expeditions currently pursuing the same destination which are not Lost are automatically returned to Carthage at the end of the Exploration and Combat Phase.
        • Augmentation.
          The Senate may send more armies and/or fleets to an existing war so long as they already have a commander.
        • Sue for peace.
          The Senate may deliberately lose a particular Active War. This removes the War and it does not count as one of four Active Wars that would cause the fall of Carthage. Instead the War is considered permanently Lost and costs the State Treasury 25T each turn. If at the end of any game turn there are four or more Lost Wars, Carthage falls and the game ends in a loss for all players.
          Enemy Leaders associated with Lost Wars for which there are no currently matching Wars in the Forum become Inactive.
        • Raise or lower Tax Rate.
          The Senate may change the Tax Rate once per turn. The rate percentage must be a non-negative multiple of 10 less than 100 and may only be increased or decreased by 10% each turn.
          Example: The current tax rate is 40%; the Senate could vote to increase it to 50% or to decrease it to 30%.
          Each proposal to increase the tax rate must name a sponsor and co-sponsor as specified by the proposer. A proposal which succeeds in raising the tax rate gains 3 Popularity for the sponsor and 1 Popularity for the co-sponsor. Each senator voting against a tax rate increase proposal loses 1 Popularity. Each senator voting for a tax rate decrease also loses 1 Popularity. No Senator in Carthage may abstain from a tax rate proposal. If the sponsors of a tax rate increase come from the same faction, both take "Liable" markers and can be subjects of a major prosecution on the succeeding Prosecution Phase (in addition to normal prosecutions).
        • Recall Commanders.
          Any commander still prosecuting a war or exploration from a previous turn may, unless Lost, be recalled. If the proposal that accomplishes it does not specify a replacement commander, the associated forces are placed in the Active Forces box.
          A recalled Commander consults the Public Reaction Table and applies its results.
        • Recall Governors.
          A Governor may be recalled from a Province by electing a new Governor as a replacement, but this may not occur in the same turn that the Governor was elected.
        • Recall a Statesman from Exile.
          A recalled Statesman returns to the Forum unless his Family card is held by a faction in which case he joins that faction, placing his card on the Family card if it does not already hold a Statesman.
        • Assign Trade Concessions.
          The Senate may assign any Trade Concessions in the Forum to individual Senators present in Carthage. There is no limit to the number of concessions a Senator may hold. Each concession may be proposed at most once per turn.
        • Elect Suffete for Life.
          A Senator in Carthge, who may already hold an office, having at least 21 Influence may be proposed Suffete for Life. For this vote only, the Senator has extra votes equal to his Influence. Should this proposal succeed and both the Senator and Carthage survive the turn the owning player wins the game. This type of proposal may only be made once per turn and may not be cancelled by Public Outcry.
      8. Public Outcry.
        Anyone with a Senator in Carthage may play a Public Outcry card to veto the current proposal or reserve the floor to make his own proposal.
        Veto. The veto ability cannot be used on prosecutions for assassination or the last eligible candidate for any office. A veto cancels the vote on the current proposal and the proposal cannot be made again on the current turn.
        Reserving the floor. Reserving the floor means that the player of the card temporarily becomes the PM and has the right to make the next proposal once the current one completes. However, the regular PM still decides the order of the vote. When there are multiple plays to reserve the floor, they are processed in the order received. The PM may not adjourn the Senate until all reservations are complete, but should the PM leave Carthage to prosecute a war, the proposals are lost.
      9. Assassinations.
        A Senator may attempt to murder another Senator in Carthage at any time during the Senate phase with the following restrictions:
        • no faction may be the target of more than one attempt per turn
        • no faction may attempt more than one per turn
        To resolve an attempt roll 1 die and consult this table:
        	Roll   Result
        	5+ 	Target Killed
        	3-4 	No effect
        	2- 	Assassin Caught
        Caught assassins. A caught assassin is immediately killed. His Faction Leader loses 5 Influence and is the subject of an immediate Major Prosecution at which he must roll against the Popular Appeal Table, subtracting the Popularity of the intended victim from the roll. The Censor of Public Morals decides the voting order. If the Faction Leader is found guilty, draw as many Mortality chits as the victim's Popularity against the faction's Senators in Carthage.
      10. Adjourn Senate.
        The PM may adjourn the Senate at any time after the Other Business portion has begun and there is no active proposal. This ends the Senate phase.

    6. Exploration and Combat Phase
      1. Resolve active explorations.
        Any prosecuted Exploration is resolved. The commander player rolls three dice, adding his Exploration Rating and subtracting 1 for each 5 Trade Fleets or Caravans or fraction thereof that his expedition is short of the numbers printed on the Exploration card. He checks the total against the Exploration Table and applies the results immediately.
        Disaster. If the unmodified roll matches the Disaster number printed on the Exploration card, ignore the table result and instead roll two dice and lose this number of Trade Fleets/Caravans. In addition, the commander draws a Mortality Chit for every 5 Trade Fleets/Caravans or fraction thereof which are lost. Should the commander die, the remaining Trade Fleets/Caravans are immediately returned to Carthage for later re-use. (Use the State Treasury tracks to indicate the number of Trade Fleets or Caravans currently allocated to an expedition.)
        Losses. Whenever the Exploration Table calls for losses of Trade Fleets or Caravans, the commander draws a Mortality chit for every 5 Trade Fleets/Caravans or fraction thereof which are lost. Any chit matching the commander results in his death. In this event, the remaining Trade Fleets/Caravans are immediately returned to Carthage for later re-use.
        Success. A result of Success returns the commander and all participating Trade Fleets/Caravans immediately to Carthage. Represent the Trade Fleets or Caravans by placing the corresponding markers on the State Treasury track.
        The expedition commander receives additional Influence and Popularity equal to the difficulty of the exploration as expressed in Trade Fleets/Caravans on the Exploration card, divided by ten. The Exploration card indicates which areas are now opened for trade. The Trade cards listed on the Trade cards Chart for those areas are placed immediately.
        Lost. Expeditions which become lost must roll for losses as indicated on the Exploration Table and roll three dice on the Exploration Table again on the next turn.
        Raiders. The Expedition makes a loss roll as indicated on the Exploration Table. It may then continue the expedition or return immediately to Carthage at the discretion of the expedition's commander.
        Beaten by another expedition. If an unsuccessful expedition saw their exploration successfully completed by another expedition, return the expedition to Carthage, unless it is Lost (see above).
      2. Resolve active wars and revolts.
        Any prosecuted war is resolved. The commander player rolls three dice, adding his Military Rating to the strength of the force and subtracting the war's strength. The following modifiers apply:
        • A war's strength is doubled if a matching war is active, tripled if two matching wars are active.
        • Each army or fleet is worth 1.
        • A Veteran army is worth 2.
        Determining the Result:
        • Standoff/Disaster. If the unmodified roll matches the Standoff or Disaster numbers on the War card, ignore the table result and apply the corresponding case below. Otherwise check the total against the Combat Table and apply the instructions for the corresponding case below.
        • Losing Armies. When losing armies, draw randomly to determine which are lost.
        • Creating Veterans. When a result creates a Veteran army, draw a participating army at random and replace it with its Veteran version. In addition the Veteran army is assigned to a participating commander, signified by placing the recruit version of the army on his card. The allegiance of the veteran army in the case of two commanders of a single force is to the Senator having the higher Popularity. Resolve ties randomly.
        • Commander Death/Capture. When armies and/or fleets are lost, a Mortality chit is drawn for each loss. Any chit that matches a commander results in his death. The last chit drawn is an exception: it results in the commander's capture instead. This Senator is out of Carthage and unavailable for all other purposes until he and/or his faction pays a ransom in the amount that is the larger of the following:
          • 10 Talents
          • The captive's Influence multiplied by two
          If the War is defeated before the ransom is paid, the captive dies.
        Resolve the various possible results as follows:
        Standoff:
        1. Remove 25% (rounded up) of total forces.
        2. Draw Mortality chits equal to forces lost, applicable only to the commander(s).
        3. If a land battle, create a Veteran army and assign to a commander.
        4. Leave remaining forces on war.
        5. Assign the commander the office of General, but do not add 3 Influence.
        Disaster:
        1. Remove 50% (rounded up) of total forces.
        2. Draw Mortality chits equal to forces lost, applicable only to the commander(s).
        3. Leave remaining forces on war.
        4. Assign the commander the office of General, but do not add 3 Influence.
        Victory:
        1. Remove any lost forces.
        2. Draw Mortality chits equal to forces lost, applicable only to the commander(s).
        3. Unless the battle was a fleet action and there are armies continuing to the land war, return Fleets to Carthage
        4. Commander(s) gain Influence and Popularity equal to half strength of the war. When there are multiple commanders, the Popularity and Influence is split evenly between them (fractions rounded up).
        5. Transfer the armies to the Commander's card. In the case of multiple commanders, transfer to the one having the highest Popularity. Resolve ties randomly.
        6. If a land battle, create a Veteran army and assign to a commander.
        7. If a higher-numbered war of the same type has already been defeated, consider this a Revolt. Otherwise increase the State Treasury as indicated on the war card.
        8. Apply any other effects of Victory listed on the War card.
        9. Place in the Forum any Provinces the war creates.
        10. Remove the war card from play.
        Stalemate:
        1. Remove lost forces.
        2. Draw Mortality chits equal to forces lost, applicable only to the commander(s).
        3. If a land battle, create a Veteran army and assign to a commander.
        4. Leave remaining forces on the war.
        5. Assign the commander the office of General, but do not add 3 Influence.
        Defeat:
        1. Remove lost forces.
        2. The Commander(s) assigned to the war die.
        3. Leave remaining forces on war.
      3. Adjust unprosecuted wars.
        If the Senate failed to send a force to an Active war, its card is moved to the Unprosecuted Wars area, where it remains until prosecuted, in which case it moves to the Active Wars area or the Senate decides to sue for peace.

    7. Revolution Phase
      1. Non-Victorious Generals check the Public Reaction Table.
        Commanders who participated in a War this turn and were not victorious consult the Public Reaction Table and apply its results.
      2. Play Intrigue Cards.
        This step is conducted simultaneously by all the players. Statesmen cards may be played at this time. Any player holding more than five Intrigue cards must, during this step, play, trade or discard such cards until he has no more than five in hand.
      3. Victorious Commanders return forces or revolt.
        In order from the HRAO and continuing clockwise, each returning victorious commander ("victorious" means that the war is completely defeated, not just a fleet portion) may rebel (enter a state of revolt) against Carthage. Indicate this by placing his armies on his card; otherwise they are returned to the board. Fleets play no part in a revolt.
        Multiple rebels. Only one faction can be in revolt at a time. If any force is already in revolt, any force (including commander ratings) wishing to take precedence must be stronger. Once players have determined a rebel in this step, no other faction may rebel until this rebel is defeated in combat.
        Joint commands. In the case of a joint command, when one commander is a Suffete and the other a General, the General may not initiate a revolt separately, but may join that of the Suffete. If both commanders hold the same office, the allegiance of the armies is decided via bribery. Each participating army is drawn at random and each contesting player secretly holds in hand the bribe amount in talents. The higher bribing player pays the talents to the bank and claims the army while the other keeps his talents. Resolve ties randomly. After all the initial allegiances are resolved each commander has the option to revolt.
        Army Allegiance. If considering revolt, a commander checks how much of his current force will join him. To do so he points to one army after another, rolling a die against the following table:
        Era           Loyal  Rebels
        Early Republic 	1-4 	5-6
        Late Republic 	1-3 	4-6
        
        Before a roll the commander(s) may spend 1T from personal treasury to add one to the roll.
        Any army for which the result is "Loyal" returns to the board. The rest remain on the commander's card.
        Veteran armies, whether in the current force or not, assigned to this commander join him automatically without the need for this roll. Veteran armies assigned to other commanders join at the discretion of their owners. An unassigned veteran army is checked as above.
        Rebel accomplices. Others in the rebel's factions must in this phase declare whether or not they are also in revolt. Those who do rebel are no longer in Carthage, no longer collect income, may share their treasuries with the rebel and share the rebel's ultimate fate. Veteran armies assigned to these rebels may join the rebel army.
        Maintenance. The rebel rather than the State treasury pays (during the Revenue Phase) for the maintenance of the rebel army. Veterans assigned to rebels do not require maintenance payments. Armies not maintained return to the Senate's control.
        The rebel war. The rebel commander(s) and army are treated as another war for the Senate to defeat. The rebel's strength is the army strength plus the commander military rating(s). If the Senate does not send an army to fight it, the game ends and the rebel player wins, if Carthage survives the turn. In addition, the rebellion counts as one of the four wars required to end the Republic; the Senate may not Sue for Peace on this war.
        Fighting the rebel. Unless the combat result is "All", the combat result applies equally to both armies. Only one set of Mortality chits is drawn, but they can affect all participating commanders. Details of the possible results:
        • Victory:
          The revolt fails and the rebels
          die. The victorious commanders gain popularity and influence equal to half the strength of the rebel force.
        • Stalemate:
          The rebellion is contested again on the next turn.
        • Defeat:
          The revolt succeeds. The rebel forces suffers no losses and return to the board. If Carthage survives the turn, the game ends and the rebel player wins,

  7. Victory Conditions
    The game ends the first time any of the following occur:
    • Revolt: A rebel Senator marches on Carthage and wins as described in the Revolution Phase.
    • Suffete for Life: The Senate declares a Senator Suffete for Life and both he and Carthage survive the turn.
    • Influence: If the deck is exhausted and none of the above apply, the faction having the most combined Influence wins.
    • Failure: If any of the following conditions apply, the game ends and all players lose:
      • Bankruptcy: The State treasury must spend talents in the Revenue Phase that would cause it to go below 0.
      • Active Wars: There are four or more Active wars at the end of the Combat phase.
      • Lost Wars: There are four or more Lost wars at the end of the Combat phase.

  8. Optional Assassination Rule
    The Republic of Rome assassination rules have the drawback that they are all or nothing; either the assassin gets away with the deed or is caught, rarely is there anything in between. Another difficulty is that the rule whereby the Faction Leader must stand for trial is never used since players simply avoid it by using the Faction Leader as the Assassin. Thus, players may wish to ignore the existing Assassination rules and adopt the following instead.
    1. A player attempting an assassination rolls one colored and one white die. Both are modified by Evil Omens if any exist. An assassination is successful if the colored dr is 5-6. An assassin is caught if the white dr is 1-3.
    2. Caught assassins are killed. In addition, every senator in the assassin's faction loses 5 Influence and 1 Popularity.
    3. Secret Bodyguard cards subtract 1 from both the colored and white die rolls as well as triggering an additional white die roll to see whether the assassin is caught.
    4. Assassin cards add 1 to both the colored and white die rolls as well as adding 1 to any additional Secret Bodyguard rolls.
    5. There is no special prosecution of the Faction Leader.

  9. Solitaire/Two-player Variant
    Note: if you have never played before, this variant can be a helpful learning tool.
    1. Setup
      Set up and play the game in the usual way except as changed by these rules. First, designate four players as non-player Neutrals (or three if there are two players).
      • Assign Players
        Use the
        Solitaire Player Aide cards to facilitate play.
        1. The Neutral faction having the highest combined Military rating are the Imperials.
        2. Next, those with the most total influence are the Plutocrats. The Plutocrat with the most Influence is the starting Home Suffete.
        3. Those with the least Influence are the Conservatives. Deal them two extra Senators.
        4. If there is no second player, the remaining faction are the Populists. Deal them one extra Senator.
      • Choose Faction Leaders
        Each Neutral faction has their own way of choosing a Faction Leader, as indicated on their cards. Should another Senator later fit the criteria better, the Neutral changes to this Faction Leader in the appropriate phase.
        Every Neutral put their initial Trader on the Faction Leader.
      • Initial Hand Cards
        Neutral hand cards are kept face up at all times. Any Neutral with a playable Statesman plays him immediately. They assign Trade Concessions to the Senator having the fewest Concessions, breaking ties in favor of most Influence.
      • Initial Committee Members
        A Neutral assigns Committee Memberships to the Senator having the most Influence who does not already have another Office.
      • Initial Governors
        In a change from the standard rules, the lowest ID Senator not in office is appointed to Undeveloped Coastal Spain and the second lowest ID Senator not in office is appointed to Undeveloped Sardinia-Corsica.
      • Tracking Game Turns
        Place the turn marker on the "1" space of the Treasury track. This marker tracks turns by advancing it one at the end of each Revolution phase.
    2. Playing the Game
    3. Winning the Game
      The Victory Conditions are unchanged.

  10. Player Notes, or How to Keep Carthage Alive
    These notes apply to the entire game, not just the solitaire/two-player version.
    Trade is the lifeblood of the Republic.
    Without trade Carthage won't have the funds to do much and that requires Traders. At least up to a quantity of nine, each Trader you acquire is more valuable than the last. Plus they count as Warehouses. Therefore don't stint. If you have the money to buy one, even if it costs 10 Talents, make the investment.

    Favor the Faction Leader.
    Your Faction Leader is not just your leader; he's also the institutional infrastructure of your faction. Even if he should die, his Traders remain. So choose your Faction Leader wisely; give him the talents needed to attract Traders and/or buy extra initiatives.

    Raise Taxes.
    Increase the tax rate early. Not only does it hit everyone more or less indiscriminately, the money gets to the State Treasury where you need it much faster than if you wait for Senators to contribute it, which is delayed until the next turn. It can be a great help in an emergency.

    Trade wisely.
    Suppose you are offered a trade in which the opponent is giving you a value of 10 and you are giving a value of 12. Should you do accept this kind of deficit? Well, if your cards in hand match at all those being offered, you probably should. Even though you're giving up a differential of two, probably your gain may be 10, 20 or even more. Your opponent is gaining too, of course, so really this is a win-win. What's more, when these cards are sold the resulting higher taxes help the Carthage bottom line and that's key to survival.

    Use red cards wisely.
    Although there is a great temptation to play Intrigue, Law and Event cards as soon as possible, it's often good to save one or two of the better ones. Not only can they be used as trade bait in case of a prosecution, if you have a Family card that gives rise to a Statesman, having a good card to trade will help you get him into play. Since many of the Statesmen help against particular wars, this helps Carthage survive.

    Conquer the little wars.
    Although wars like the Sicilian and Pyrrhic can look very scary, unless you're facing four of them, you may want to start out the way Carthage did, by addressing the inactive, "little" wars. The advantage is that these wars add new armies to the Force Pool. The Libyan War adds four Libyan Light Infantry, the Numidian four Numdian Cavalry and either of them a brace of War Elephants. Even Morocco is useful as it too provides access to Elephants. With more armies available, it's much more difficult for a general to successfully march on Carthage. Plus, these wars create new provinces. Not only do they bring in more to the State Treasury, they represent places to banish Senators whose high Influence makes them dangerous to the state.

    Don't forget the auxiliary forces.
    The Sikels are available for all Sicilian and Roman Wars. The Galls are available for the Second and Third Roman Wars. Use of these forces will permit you to leave other forces at home to deter and/or stop any would-be rebel.

    Emphasize the Veterans.
    Surviving the onslaught of Scipio and the Romans isn't easy. One key is building up a strong army of Veterans. This means, trying to fight often and creating plenty of Veterans, but also, once created, try to avoid using them so that they are not accidentally lost.

    1. How to Play
    2. Sequence of Play
    3. Effects of Wars
    4. Resolving Wars
    5. Resolving Losses
    6. Consequences of Defeat
    7. Ending the Combined Game
    8. Winning the Combined Game
    9. Players Notes
    Appendices
    1. Combining this game with The Republic of Rome
      1. How to Play
      1. Play The Republic of Carthage through the end of the Early Republic. (Even if during the last turn of the first deck there are fewer than 6 cards available, do not add cards from the second deck until after completing the Carthage Revolution Phase.)
      2. Then, set up The Republic of Rome in the usual way, starting with the first deck and each The Republic of Carthage player also taking over a The Republic of Rome faction. Place the 1st Punic War as an Inactive War in the Roman Forum as usual. The Carthaginian board begins with the 1st Roman War as an Inactive War, in addition to any Active and Inactive Wars which may already be on the board.

      2. Sequence of Play
      Each turn consists of the following, in order:

      1. Carthage:
        1. Carthage Mortality Phase
        2. Carthage Revenue Phase
        3. Carthage Trade Phase
        4. Carthage Forum Phase
      2. Rome:
        1. Rome Mortality Phase
        2. Rome Revenue Phase
        3. Rome Forum Phase
      3. Senate:
        1. Carthage Senate Phase
        2. Rome Senate Phase
      4. Exploration, Combat and Revolution:
        1. Combined Exploration and Combat Phase
        2. Carthage Revolution Phase
        3. Rome Revolution Phase

      3. Effects of Wars
      Effect on the other Forum. When any Punic war appears in the Roman Forum, the Roman war with the corresponding number becomes active on the Carthaginian board. When any Roman war appears on the Carthage board, the Punic war with the corresponding number becomes active in the Roman Forum. (If the now active war card is not already present in the Forum, find it in the deck, put it on the board and re-shuffle.)

      Matching War and Leader cards continue to make Inactive Wars Active as normal.

      Should the Roman Senate attack and defeat a Punic War, it makes the Roman War of the corresponding number a Lost War in Carthage. Similarly, if the Carthaginian Senate attack and defeat a Roman War, it makes the Punic War of the corresponding number a Lost War in Rome. If in the same turn the Roman Senate attacks a Punic War and the Carthaginian Senate attacks a Roman War and both wars have the same number, the War cards are ignored and combat is resolved as described below.

      An extra restriction is added for this scenario: the Punic and the Roman Wars must be addressed in numerical order, e.g. the second war may not be attacked before the first.

      Note that the 1st Roman War and 1st Punic War are essentially two-part wars. The fleet part of the war must be defeated before the land part of the war may be attempted. If the first part is accomplished, but not the second and then on a subsequent turn the other side re-conquers the fleet portion, but not the land portion, then the first side must once again defeat the fleet portion before it can attack the land portion.

      Any leader, i.e. Pyrrhus, Hannibal, Hamilcar or Scipio, who dies in one Forum is also removed from the game in the other Forum, or is discarded upon his appearance from the deck as if the card had not been in it.

      4. Resolving Wars
      When both sides are attacking the other's war of the same number, resolve it as in Rebel combat. The force with highest combined strength and commander military ratings is considered the attacker.

      No Disaster/Standoff numbers are used.

      5. Resolving Losses
      Any losses except "ALL" are applied equally to both armies:

        Victory.
        The losing force loses the war.
        Victory/No Losses.
        Same as Victory, but in addition all the units of the losing force are destroyed and the losing commanders must draw Mortality Chits equal to the number of units lost.
        Stalemate.
        The war is undecided and can be continued in the next Combat Phase, either by fighting the respective War Cards or if both sides send forces, against one another. Surviving forces are left on the respective war cards. The number of Mortality Chits drawn remain the same, but apply to both sides' commanders.
        Defeat.
        The attacking force has lost the war.
        Defeat/All.
        Same as Defeat, but in addition the attacking force, only, must draw Mortality Chits.

      6. Consequences of Defeat
      When Carthage loses a war, apply the same effects as if the Senate had sued for peace. When Rome loses a war, the war may no longer be fought and will cost the Roman Senate 25T during the Revenue Phase each turn thereafter. Any leader matching the Inactive War remains in the Forum, active if other matching wars are present, becoming inactive otherwise.

      In the Combined game, if either side loses a war to the other, 15T of the 25T paid each turn is paid directly into the state treasury of the winning side.

      7. Ending the Combined Game
      The Combined game ends on the turn in which the last The Republic of Carthage card is drawn in the Forum Phase or when the last The Republic of Rome Early Republic card is drawn, whichever comes second. Should Rome run out of Early Republic cards prior to Carthage exhausting its deck, the Roman Middle Republic deck should be used.

      Should a player achieve conditions which would normally allow him to win the game prior to its end, i.e. becoming Consul for Life or successful Rebellion, the game does not end as normal, but instead continues until the conditions in the previous paragraph apply. A Senator who successfully rebels is considered Consul for Life. A Consul for Life retains all of his powers for the remainder of the game or until successfully assassinated; one assassination attempt can be attempted per turn (i.e. normal rules for assassination attempts apply).

      8. Winning the Combined Game

      • If both republics fall, all players lose.
      • If Rome falls and Carthage does not, the winner of the game is the winner of the The Republic of Carthage game.
      • If Carthage falls and Rome does not, the The Republic of Rome winner wins.
      • If both republics survive, the winners of the respective republics earn "player victories". In each Republic, rank each other player in terms of total faction influence from second to last. Then add each player's pair of rankings. The player with the lowest sum wins the combined game. If two or more players are equal, the player with the better ranking in the republic which has fewer lost wars, wins. If this fails to identify a winner, consider all such players as having tied for the victory. (For tournament purposes, use having the most total influence at end in both Republics, then having the single Senator with the most influence, as a tiebreaker.)

        For example, Andy, Bob and Chuck are playing and have rankings as follows:

        PlayerCarthage rankingRome ranking Sum
        Andy1st2nd3
        Bob2nd3rd5
        Chuck3rd1st4
        Three being the lowest of the summed rankings, Andy has won.
      • If both republics survive, but the game is being played by two teams so that each player is involved with just one republic only, then the winner is the player who has the greatest percentage of the total influence in that republic at the end of play.

        For example:

        In Rome:
        Andy has 35
        Bob has 47
        Chuck has 13
        Total: 95

        In Carthage:

        Alan has 42
        Ben has 54
        Carl has 24
        Total: 120

        Bob's score is 47/95 or 49%. Ben's score is 45%. Bob wins even though he has less influence than Ben.

      9. Players Notes
      Players may approach this expanded version of The Republic of Rome with uncertainty and confusion – this is expected! After all, you are being asked to simultaneously play factions on both sides of a war to the death, that is, to have a foot in each camp. Actually this has been done before in games (cf. Russian Civil War, Junta) and so should not come as a complete novelty. Players will quickly find that the addition of the Carthaginian scene takes negotiation and scheming to a whole new order of magnitude. There are new sets of options to consider. No longer is success in Rome paramount for personal success. If one doesn't do well in one Republic, there is always the other. One can delay the success of rival factions by strong play in the other Republic or even work against one of the Republics to permit the triumph of the other (and one's own faction of course).

      Some may view such approaches as "unpatriotic" within a particular Republic, perhaps even unrealistic. But it should be kept in mind that in both Rome and Carthage there were always political forces which for their own reasons opposed war and sought to avoid it whenever possible. Such peace parties don't make sense, can never make sense in the original The Republic of Rome context because of its inherent nature as a war game. But in The Republic of Carthage, the Senate may, by means of exploration and suing for peace actually divert a portion of the republic's energy into other activities. And in the combined game, life can be breathed into the peace parties of Rome as well, providing another level of tension and conflict so typical of the Roman Republic.

    2. Designer's Notes
      Anyone who has played The Republic of Rome quickly appreciates its superior design. Not simply for its depth of research and detail and its uncompromising point-of-view, which are already leagues ahead of many designs, but also it offers play opportunities and machinations unique to gaming while still retaining an incredibly real "feel" of the late Roman Republic. As a veteran of many games and especially Internet-adjudicated The Republic of Rome games, I dug deeper and deeper into background reading to find out more about the realities behind the wars, statesmen, laws and provinces depicted in the game. I was particularly seized with the discovery that Rome's arch-enemy also possessed a Senate, possibly with similar goings-on. It became clear that there were possibilities to graft this game system into a Carthaginian sphere and from there, the chief goal was to create a reflection of the unique aspects of Phoenician-Carthaginian culture.

      As a result, players will find introduced new concepts utterly foreign to The Republic of Rome. The importance of trade and the person of the trader are reflected in a new Trade Phase. In addition, Carthage may explore and discover new trade opportunities. A de-emphasis on war is reflected by lowered military ratings on most senators, apart from their star, Hannibal, truly a world-class commander of all time. The other way this de-emphasis appears is in the use of occasionally unreliable mercenary legions and mercenary cards.

      Not much about the day-to-day proceedings of the Carthaginian Senate is known – it may have been more of a rubber stamp than the Roman one – but the Committee of Five and their activities are documented. With wealth more derived from trade than from agriculture, Carthage does not seem to have had the same need for "bread and circuses"; thus there are no land bills or games. Consequentially, popularity is harder to come by. Both games share however a basic tension between the good of the faction or senator and the good of the state and now in addition to deciding how much to contribute to the state treasury, players must consider the appropriate tax rate. Refusal to return trade goods represents an interesting additional method for disruption of the regime. All the Laws included reflect actual laws enacted at some point in the history of the Republic while the various events affecting trade prices are more or less invented simply to throw a little uncertainty into the trade process.

      The Combined Game represents a larger time commitment than either game individually, but is recommended for those who want to widen even further the scope for power politics and chicanery. Players may choose to "bet on" one Republic or the other, working against one regime from within, but may find themselves scrambling if a reversal occurs or if someone else manages to take the lead within the winning side. Another interesting way to play this one is using 6-12 players playing one faction only, that is, Roman and Carthaginian groups competing for control of the Mediterranean world. This setup should provide the most realistic simulation of all.

      When we play The Republic of Rome, the Punics are for the most part the faceless enemy. Since the victors got to write the history books, most of their documents were destroyed. Who were they? What did they care about? How did their system work? Who was admired in their culture? How did their political systems work? What about their religion? Was it like Rome's or different? These are some of the things I wanted to reveal in this game, to give Carthage too, at last, a face.

Acknowledgements
The Republic of Carthage is a Rick Heli design.
Many thanks to playtesters Claudio Grassi, Enrico Viglino.
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